With the continuous shakeup of the leaderboard at the Masters, one player remained the constant.As the plot continued to thicken, Jordan Spieth remained atop the field. The seemingly unflappable 22-year-old was cruising to his second green jacket in as many years.Then, it happened. Spieth’s inexplicable implosion in the middle of Amen Corner on Sunday all but destroyed his chances of retaining his crown as king of Augusta National. In the span of just a few minutes, Spieth went from leader to chaser — from 5-under-par to 1-under. Surely, fans thought their eyes were deceiving them when the tournament leader found the water hazard twice on the same hole.He was indeed unable to rebound from his stunning 7 — a quadruple bogey on the par-3 12th hole.Danny Willett went on to win the Masters and Spieth had to trudge through the process of presenting the Englishman with the green jacket. Spieth showed genuine class during what was surely an agonizing experience.Yet these moments are inevitable in arguably the cruelest sport on the face of the planet. Spieth took home the hardware from the U.S. Open last June, but Dustin Johnson three-putted the 18th green on a fateful Sunday and finished just a stroke worse than Spieth. Johnson collapsed on the 72nd hole at Chambers Bay. Spieth lost his magical touch on one hole on the back nine at Augusta. It happens to the very best.Spieth will never forget the burn of the 2016 Masters, but the horror story that was the 12th hole could actually make him even better in the future. He has already snagged two majors. Golfing great Sergio Garcia has never won a major, and he turned pro when Spieth was in the early stages of grade school.Spieth’s Sunday debacle was incomprehensible, but the nature of the sport suggests that something like this was bound to happen at some point in his career. In a sense, this experience could be a catalyst for Spieth to take his game to the next level. He is so young and already possesses such a refined skillset, but he failed to break 70 after shooting a sporty 66 on Thursday. A 66 at Augusta is unreal, yet the Spieth of the future will likely be able to card that score on all four days. He erred on one hole, but one hole can doom a player in this unforgiving game. Ernie Els six-putted the first hole on Thursday and was immediately out of contention.Augusta National is ruthless, yet Spieth was nearly infallible in this tournament. His short game was reliable, as he correctly read the challenging greens time and time again. He just happened to err on one hole, and well, that was that.Spieth has the potential to go down as one of the greatest of all time, and he is precocious both on and off the links. After a devastating turn of events in Augusta, Spieth faced the media and came back with earnest, candid responses.The consistency this young man exhibits from hole to hole and round to round has the capability of blinding fans from the fact that he is mortal. To see this golfing demigod so somber was eerie. While he does not provide fans with the raw emotion of a Tiger Woods, his game in and of itself is something to behold. He was still the personification of equanimity after losing out on Sunday, but a certain fire ought to be brewing from within this competitor. This Sunday was certainly one to forget for Spieth, but he simply will not be able to shake the image of the 12th hole.That is not necessarily a bad thing.This Masters moment will likely fade into the background when Spieth is surrounded by major trophies one day, leaning back on his throne of greatness. Or perhaps this moment might be in the forefront of his mind as he reflects on an illustrious career, noting that Sunday was the day that sparked his transition from great to unstoppableThis was a career-defining moment for Spieth. In other words, the best is yet to come. Josh Cohen is a sophomore majoring in broadcast and digital journalism. His column, “Cohen’s Corner,” runs Tuesdays.
Ahead of that, Tipperary’s minor hurlers take on Limerick in the minor hurling final. Coach Mikey Beevans, who’s been involved with the backroom team all year, says the players’ attitude needs to be right if they’re to lift the trophy. Limerick stand between the Premier County and a 20th title at this grade.Beevans says there’s a reason why the players have got better as the season has gone on..Throw in for that match is at 1.15 and Tipp FM will have full live coverage with build up starting at 1 o’clock in association with Gleeson Steel and Engineering. Meanwhile, Kilkenny’s Eoin Larkin hasn’t been part of the Kilkenny set-up all year due to injury and says it hasn’t been easy getting back up to speed.Tipp FM will have full live commentary on the 2016 All-Ireland senior hurling final this Sunday afternoon. Our build-up to the game – which gets underway at 3.30 – begins at 3 o’clock in association with Mulcahy Car Sales, Ardcroney, Nenagh. The Borrisoleigh man believes having being involved in the sport’s big day before, helps to drown out the distractions that surround it.It’s likely that he’ll lead the Premier County into battle against Kilkenny in Sunday’s Liam MacCarthy Cup decider.Maher doesn’t think players ever become bored by an occasion as big as this weekend’s.
Neither team played with much fluency in a tight first half, but the match burst into life in a second period peppered with chances at both ends.Home goalkeeper Wayne Hennessey produced several excellent saves to deny the visitors, while Wales were close to snatching a late winner through Ashley Williams and Gareth Bale.After winning their previous match in Andorra 2-1 and with other results going their way, a draw was enough to take Wales to the top of Group B.Chris Coleman’s side were backed by a vociferous crowd of 30,741 at the Cardiff City Stadium – though it also included a very vocal away following – a record attendance for an international fixture at the venue. They face Cyprus at the same ground on Monday.Injuries had disrupted preparations for Wales, with Arsenal’s Aaron Ramsey and Joe Allen of Liverpool the most notable absentees.Joe Ledley and Jonathan Williams were given the formidable task of replacing them – and containing a dangerous Bosnian midfield featuring Roma’s Miralem Pjanic.Williams created the game’s first chance, as his corner was headed over by his namesake, captain Ashley Williams, in the seventh minute.It was not long before Bale had his first effort on goal, latching on to a long pass from Ben Davies but sending a deft volley over the bar.The Real Madrid winger was not as influential as usual, primarily because the world’s most expensive player was stalked everywhere he went by Everton’s Muhamed Besic.As well as shackling the hosts’ main threat, Bosnia showed flashes of their own attacking potential in the first half with a couple of shots from distance from Pjanic.And they were quickly on the front foot after the restart.Hennessey had to make two excellent saves to deny Haris Medunjanin and captain Edin Dzeko, while the Crystal Palace keeper was well beaten by a Pjanic free-kick that curled narrowly wide.The hosts had a glorious chance to take the lead against the run of play, but an unmarked Ashley Williams headed over from Bale’s free-kick.That was the catalyst for a frantic finale, with Hennessey brilliantly saving a Pjanic free-kick and Bosnia goalkeeper Asmir Begovic producing the save of the night to palm away Bale’s fierce angled shot. (Source: BBC Sport)
A wolf’s howl is one of the most iconic sounds of nature, yet biologists aren’t sure why the animals do it. They’re not even sure if wolves howl voluntarily or if it’s some sort of reflex, perhaps caused by stress. Now, scientists working with captive North American timber wolves in Austria report that they’ve solved part of the mystery.Almost 50 years ago, wildlife biologists suggested that a wolf’s howls were a way of reestablishing contact with other pack members after the animals became separated, which often happens during hunts. Yet, observers of captive wolves have also noted that the pattern of howls differs depending on the size of the pack and whether the dominant, breeding wolf is present, suggesting that the canids’ calls are not necessarily automatic responses.Friederike Range, a cognitive ethologist at the University of Veterinary Medicine in Vienna, was in a unique position to explore the conundrum. Since 2008, she and her colleagues have hand-raised nine wolves at the Wolf Science Center in Ernstbrunn, which she co-directs. “We started taking our wolves for walks when they were 6 weeks old, and as soon as we took one out, the others would start to howl,” she says. “So immediately we became interested in why they howl.”Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*)Although the center’s wolves don’t hunt, they do howl differently in different situations, Range says. “So we also wanted to understand these variations in their howling.”The scientists have divided the wolves at the center into two packs. Range and her colleagues first determined each wolf’s position within the dominance hierarchy in its pack and the animals’ social relationships. The captive wolves do not have families as wild wolves do, and so they form hierarchies. “They have obvious, preferred partners that they play with, groom, and lie close to when sleeping,” Range says. The scientists then took each wolf out for three 45-minute walks, spread over several weeks. They removed the wolves in random order, so that the animals could not predict which one in their pack was going to leave. The researchers also set up a control situation by placing each of the wolves in an adjoining holding area again on three occasions for 45 minutes each time. The rest of the pack could not see the wolf in this area, but because he or she was nearby in a familiar place, there was no need for the animals to communicate.In almost all cases, the pack began to howl within the first 20 minutes after a member was led away on a walk, Range says. But the one out for a stroll usually did not return the call. Those left behind howled in 26 of the 27 walking trials, but only two times during the control trials. The scientists kept careful track of which wolves were actually howling. Overall, the animals did most of their yodeling when the pack’s dominant member went for a walk. Individual wolves also howled more when the wolf that was led away was his or her preferred pal—which means that the wolves aren’t simply howling because others are. “It’s not a contagious response,” Range says. “Social relationships are very important to them, and the howling patterns reflect that.”Thinking that the stress of separation likely triggered the wolves’ howls, the scientists tested the animals’ levels of the stress hormone cortisol by collecting saliva samples 20 minutes after each trial began. “We’ve trained them to let us put a stick with cotton on the end into their mouths and pull it around,” Range says. “I thought stress would be connected to the amount of howling, but that’s not always the case.” The wolves’ cortisol levels spiked when the dominant animal was taken for a walk, but not when their preferred partner was led away. Despite their numerous howls in the latter situation, they were apparently not stressed. And that means that the wolves’ howls aren’t like the robotic responses of Pavlov’s dogs, which salivated when the dinner bell rang. Instead of always being a simple physiological stress response, a wolf’s howl is at times more voluntary and driven by social factors, the team reports online today in Current Biology. “It’s strategic, not emotional,” Range says. “They’re trying to contact individuals that are important to them and reform the pack. And they have some control over how much they howl.”“The paper provides the first experimental evidence … that the main reason [for howling] is to help the pack assemble after a long hunt,” says Dave Mech, a wolf biologist at the University of Minnesota, Twin Cities. He proposed the notion in 1966 after witnessing a pack of 15 wolves hunting. At the end of that hunt, the wolves were widely dispersed, he says, but “after howling, the pack was able to assemble again.”But John Theberge, a wildlife biologist emeritus from the University of Waterloo in Canada, and Mary Theberge, who study wolf howls in wild populations, point out in an e-mail message that “extrapolating conclusions from penned animals to … wild ones is dangerous. The role of howling may be quite different in the wild where an animal is free to silently follow the scent trail of others.” They also suggest that hormones other than those associated with stress may be involved in the wolves’ howls. “Perhaps some other emotion was involved, such as a general level of excitement,” they write, noting that wild wolves also howl as they get up after long periods of rest. “No stress is evident,” but the wolves are “aroused” and howling. And that means there’s plenty left to explore in the howl of a wolf.